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To Build City-Region Anew: Space for Participation and Citizens’ Initiatives.[1]

09/04/2010 By Marco Kusumawijaya

PaperwrittenforTokyoUniversity’s“SustainabelCity-regionWorkshops,”23-24February2010,Shangri-LaHotel,Tainan,Taiwan.

By:MarcoKusumawijaya

Abstract

Thispaperdiscussesexperiencesofparticipatorypracticesandcitizens’initiativesincity-regionbuildinginacontextofrecentlyandrapidlydemocratisingcountry,Indonesia.Whiletheseexperiencesarerootedinspecificpost-authoritarianIndonesia,theyneverthelessindicatesomeideasthatmightbeimportantforourourtransitiontowardssustainability.Thepaperarguesthatparticipationandcitizens’initiativesaremorethanjustafulfilmentofapoliticalright,butanewwayofbuildingsustainablecity-region.

Keywords:Participation,SpatialPlanning,Citizens’Initiatives,Aceh,Jakarta.

Introduction:ContextandConnviction

AftertheReformMovementin1998,Indonesiahasbeenseeinganunstoppableandunprecedenteddecentralisingprocessinitshistory.Publicparticipationinprocessingpublicpolicyhasbeenincreasinglydemanded,andalsorelativelyaccomodatedinnewlawsandregulations.But,casesoftrueparticipationinspatialplanningarerare.Standards,models,skills,arejustemerging.Someguidelineshavebeenveryrecentlyformulated,butacceptanceamongbureaucracy,aswellasunderstandingamongsocietyatlargeaboutdetailedmechanicsofparticipatoryprocess,isstilllow.

Since1998Ihavebeeninvolvedinparticipatoryprocessesfordifferentpurposes:conflictresolutions[2],NGO’sstrategicplanning,CityDevelopmentStrategy[3]andpost-tsunamireconstructionofAceh[4].IamcurrentlyamemberofCitizensCoalitionforJakarta2030thatadvocatesatruepartisipatoryprocessforthespatialmasterplanningofJakarta2010-2030[5].

Mybasicassumptionisthattobesustainable,acity-regionneedstobewholeinitsrelationshiptotheenvironmentanditsinterculturalsociety.Diversityshouldbeencouragedforitsintrinsicgoodness,andtocounterglobalizedstandardisationandhomogenisation.Acityshouldgrowtogetherwithitsregionoflocalresourcesandcontext,sothatitwouldberootedinitsenvironment,andbecomeaplacewithidentity.Itisactuallypossibleforustoreallyimaginesustainablecity-regioncreativelyasanewwayoflife,adifferentworld.Itisanunlimitedprojectbeyondsurvivingtheclimatechange.Ineffect,anewidealism.Andtomakeitpossible,spaceforparticipationneedstobecreated,recreatedandexpanded;andcitizeninitiativesmustbeencouraged,facilitatedandcatalysed.

Because,toachievesustainability,changeswillhavetotakeplaceatmultiplelevelssimultaneously,atpracticalbehaviouralpatternaswellasatvalues,andateverythingelseinbetweenthem,includingoursystemicsupportssuchasurbaninfrastructure,industrialcomplex,anddemocraticinstitutions.Weneedtorecreateappropriatevalues,consensusandtrust,aswellasre-inventourdailylife.Thereisawholesetofnitty-grittyworksthatneedsourcreativecapacityandpersonalcommitmenttochangeindividuallyandcollectively.

Bothourpoliticalandeconomicspaceshavenotbeenalwayssuccessful.Wemustcontinuouslyanddiligentlyfeedvaluesandwilltodirectboththestateandthemarket.Wecannotjustrelinquishtoomuchpowertobothandbecomepassiveafterwards.Wehavetokeeponworkingascivilsocietytoreclaimthestatetobemoreresponsiveandtheeconomytobemoresubstantive,toprimarilyfulfilourneeds,nottomakemaximumprofitsofanyresourcebyafew.[6]

Giventheinevitablefrequentmarketfailuresandofteninertpoliticalstalematesvestedwithpowerwebs,thethirdsector,civilsociety,bothaspublicspaceandasassociationsofactive,self-organisedindividualcitizensorgroups,willhavetotakeupthosechallenges.Inrapidlydensifyingcitieswithdiversifyingdiversity,thosechallengescouldbeeithereasierormoredifficult,dependingonhowwellcivilsocietyisre-organising,vis-à-visthepoliticalandeconomicspaces.

Aspirationforsustainabilityofcitiesmaymakepoliticsmorecomplex,butalsopotentiallymorefocusedwithasenseofurgency.Itre-assertstheverybasicofdemocraticprocesses,transparencyandaccountability,inalmostscientificsense.Withrecentprogressintechnologyandcollaborativeinstitutions,humankindisactuallywellequippedtofacethechallengesuccessfully.Wecanundoglobalwarmingwhiledevelopnewwaysoflivingbetter.Howeveritrequiresthatthechallengeberespondedcollectivelyactively.Participationandcitizens’initiativesarekeyfactorstosuccessfultransition.

ArgumentsforParticipationinDecisionMakingProcess

BroadlyIwouldsimplify“participatoryladder”[7]intothreemajorsteps:

  1. Mobilisation:decisionsaremadebyauthoritiesandpeopleareaskedto“participate”inexecutingthedecisions.
  2. Consultation:optionsanddecisionsaredraftedormadebyauthoritiesbutinputsand/orconsentsareaskedfromthepeople.
  3. DecisionMaking:peopleformulateanddraftoptionsanddecisionstogetherwithorwithoutrelevantauthorities.
IassumeitisobviousthatImeanparticipationbythethirdkind/stepabove.Althoughincertaincasesandcontextsthisthirdkindcanbeseenassomethingtograduallyaspireto,Iwouldarguethatitisthisthirdkindthatneedstobepromotedastheidealandusefulinourtransitiontowardssustainablecity-regions.

Therearemuchmorereasonsforparticipatorydemoracythanjustfulfillingabasicpoliticalright.

  1. Participationofthethirdkindcanbeseenasaneededradicalisationofdemocracytostrengthenlocalesandcommunitiesvis-à-vistheradicalisationofglobalisationandprivatisation.Participationindailymanagementofurbangovernanceisawaytogivevoicestothe80%majorityof ordinarypeople.
  2. Democratisationofknowledgeproductionhasintenselybeendecentralisinganddeconcentratingknowledgeandknow-howawayfromanycenterandmanytraditionalknowledgecenterssuchasconventionaluniversitiesand/orgovernmentbodies.ThinkforexampleoftheuseofInternet.
  3. Therequiredchangestowardssustainabilitycallforownership(ofourcommonfuture)andpersonalcommitments.Unlesswearethinkingofarevivalofauthoritarianregimes,aprerequisiteforpopularcommitmentisparticipationindecisionmakingprocessastheonlywaytoproduceanownershipofanyconsensus.Participationisanecessitytochangehabitatandhabitustowardssustainability.Inaway,wecanseethisas“mobilisation”basedonatrue,internalisedownershipandvolunteerism.
  4. ThegrowthinDIY(DoItYourself)incitizens’initiativesandpracticesshouldalsobeseenasconstructiveandneedstobeincludedindecisionmakingprocess,astheyprovideinvaluableexperiences,lessons,andgoodpractices,toenrichdecisionmakingprocess.Citizens’initiativesarenowgoingtoevendeeperlevels,beyonddoingactualthings,suchasinbuildingcatalysinginfrastructure.(www.rujak.orisanexample).Theirorganisingcapacityisalsoincreasingtogobeyondad-hoccoalition,toasfarasvoluntarymultistakeholdersforum,forexample.
  5. Thegrowthofknowledgeon,ofandbyminoritygroups(duetogrowthofdemocraticmeansofsharingandcommunication),thepreviouslymarginalised,unseen,suppressed,oppressed,orhiddeninanyotherway,callsforinclusiveapproachindecisionmakingprocessmadepossibleincertainparticipatorymethods.
  6. Innewlydemocratisingsocietiesthathavegonethorughperiodsofauthoritarian,elitistregimes, participatoryprocessisofutmostimportantvehicletonarrowtheknowledgegapsbetweenthepoliticalelitesandtheordinarycitizens,betweenbureaucracyandthecitizens,andamongdifferentsegmentsofsociety.However,wecanotbenaïvetobelievethatthiswouldbeasufficientmotivationamonglong-standingtechnocratsremaininginbureaucracy.Theremustbeaclearpoliticalwillinadvanceasaprerequisite.
GiventhecontextofrapidlydemocratisingIndonesia,thepoliticalsignificanceofparticipatorydemocracyisthatitmightbeperceivedasacompetitionoralternativetoparliamentarydemocracy.Threeargumentscanbeforwardedtocounterthismisperception:

-      Participatorydemocraticprocedureisanecessarystepbeforeenteringlaw-makingprocess.Thisway,itcanbearguedthatparliamentsarereturnedtoitsbasicfunctionas“law-makingbody”(legislature).

-      Manydailypracticesincommunitiesdonotneed“laws”thatwllhavetogothroughalongandslowlaw-makingprocesstodraftandpass,butjust“themagicofconcensus”.

-      Manylongtermplansandcommitmentsoutliveanypoliticalterm.Forthese,alarger,directmandatesmustbeobtainedafreshfrompopulationatlarge.

Onanotherfront,theexecutivebranchofthegovernments,especiallyatlocallevels,oftenseesparticipationasnuissanceandthreatheningtheirdiscretionarypower. Thisnegativeattitudestemsfromaverylongperiod(35years)ofworkinginisolationorinpartnershiponlywithelitistconsultantswiththeirauthoritarianprevilegeandhabitualcorruption.Thereisapparentlyalsoabigignoranceaboutdetailsofparticipatoryapproach,resultinginsuspicionanddisbeliefinitspracticalbenefits.

Case1:PeopleDrivenReconstructionof 23VillagesinPost-TsunamiAceh

OnDecember26,2004,anearthquakeandtsunamihitAcehandpartsofNorthSumatera.Morethan150,000housesneedtobe(re)built,andmorethan500,000peoplebecamehomeless.AfterabriefvoluntaryworkinthewestcoastofAceh,helpingdesigningafewhousesandparticipatorymappingandplanning,IworkedprofesionallywithUPLINK,anIndonesianNGO,toreconstruct23villagesinthe westpartofnorthcoastoftheCityofBandaAcehanditswesternadjoiningdistrict,AcehBesar.The23villagesarespreadnexttoeachothersalongsome7kilometerscoastalline.Halfofthemarereallyurbanwithoriginalhighdensityofplotsandfamilies,othersaresemi-urbanandafewarereallyruralwithagriculturalasdominanteconomy.Thereare3,300familiestoberehousedontheiroriginalplots.Allvillagesarecompletelydestroyed.Thatmeanswehadtobuildalsoallrelatedinfrastructuresandcommunityfacilities:roads,sanitation,drainage,watersupply,electricity,3mosques,23communitycenters,etc.

Actuallyourorganisationalsohelpsineconomicrecoveryprogrammesaswellastraumahealing,and organicrehabilitationofdamagedandsaltedfarmlands.Wewereresponsiblefor30millionsUSDfunding.

Fromtheverybeginning,weadvocatedatotalcommunityparticipatoryapproach.Mycolleaguesworkedtogetherwiththesurvivors(atermweinsistinusing,insteadof“victims”)tobuildtemporarysheltersontheiroriginalplotsalreadysinceearlyFebruary2005,andthenveryquicklyengagedtheminre-organisingthemselvestorevitalisetheircommunities.AthoroughandaccuratedigitalsurveywasdoneparticipatorilyevenbeforethegovernmentandtheWorldBankcamewiththeirland-survey(andcertification)programme,whichwaslatercancelledanyway.WewerethefirstorganisationtohavetwocompletesetsofdigitalTotalStationSurveyinstruments,aswellasalargescaleplottermachine.

TheNGO’ssocialteamhaddoneanamazingjoborcommunityorganisingwhenIstartedinMay2005toorganiseandleadatechnicalteamtostartplanning,designing,andstartedtheconstructionofthefirstbatchofhousesandvillageinfrastructures.

Thetypesofparticipationwherethesurvivorsareengagedcanbelistedasfollows(whiletheinter-relationbetweenthesedifferenttypesareasimportant):

-      Lands/plotssurvey

-      Villagemapping(coveringnotjustphysical,butalsosocial,economicalandculturalfeatures)

-      Villageplanning

-      Areaplanning(integratingthe23villagesandtheirsurrounding)

-      DesigningHouses

-      Constructionofthehouses,includingtendering,executionandsupervision

-      Manufacturingofbuildingmaterials(ironframe,timberworks,compactedsoilcementblocks,…

-      Budgeting.

Modesofparticipationdifferfordifferenttypesofdecisionstobemade,involvingcountlessmeetings,smallandlarge,andwithhelpsofmanyspecialistexpertsorresourcepersons.Therealsohavebeenspecialmeetingsforwomen.Itwaspainfulinthebeginning,andverydifficulttoconvincepeople,includingmanylevelsofauthorities,ofourapproach.

However,inFebruary2007,after18monthsofconstrcution,wearethefirsttoofficiallydeliver3300houses(plusmostofthevillageinfrstructures)tothesurvivors,outpacingallotherorganisations,includingtheWorldBank,ADB,UN-HabitatandinternationalNGO’ssuchastheRedCrosses.Allsuccessfactorsleadtoonekeysuccesfactor:theparticipatoryapproachmanagedtochannelthefullpotentialsofthesurvivorsthemselvesindifferentroles,makingthemthemostefficientowners,qualityassuranceagents,builders,andprojectmanagersindifferentcapacities.

Theprojectwon2009’sDubaiInternationalAwardforBestPracticesinImprovingHumanSettlementsandIndonesianInstituteofArchitects’sAwardforbestsocialproject.

UN-HABITATsurveyrankedourvillagesasthebestintwocategories:technicalqualityandbeneficiarysatisfaction.

Case2:AdvocacyforaParticipatoryProcessforJakartaSpatialPlan2010-2030

Jakarta’sMasterplanof1985-2005washastilyrevisedin1999,oneyearafterthereformmovement,toaccommodatelegalandillegalchangestotheplan.AnewplancalledJakarta2010wasproduced.

Therewasalimitedcampaignsandprotestagainstit,butnothingmuchcanbesaved.Iwaspersonallyverymuchintheforefrontandpioneeringforthislimited,veryunorganisedandunsuccessfulcampaign.

Thereasonsforfailureofthiscampaignareobvious:civilsocietywasnotreallyawareoftheirrightsontheseseeminglytechnicalissuesofspatialmasterplanning,giventherecentshockofnew-foundfreedom;andthebureaucracyhadstillaverystronghandtoconductthisrevisionexercisebehindcloseddoors.

Nevertheless,thiscasemanagedtobringtheimportanceofthespatialmasterplanningtothepublicknowledge,andhenceitreallylaunchedspatialplanningtobecomeapopularsubjectforthepressandgeneralpublic.

In2008,thereviewprocessofJakarta2010wasstarted.Thegoalistoproduceanew,long-term(20years)spatialmasterplancalledJakarta2010-2030.Notmuchisknownaboutitsprocess.Despitetheclaimbythegovernmentthatseveralconsultativemeetingshavebeenorganised,thereisverylittlecoverageinthepressanditwasalmostunknownamongthepopulation.

www.rujak.orgreceived andpostedan“unauthorised”copyofthepresentationbythemasterplanconsultantinJanuary2010.Soonitattractedattentionamongactivists.ThefirstattempttogetacopyofitsAcademic(background)Paperwasturneddownbycityofficial.Afterwedownloadedadraftbylawonthespatialmasterplan,andgiveon-linecritiques,itwasrevisedmorethan5timesin10days,withthefirstthreerevisionswerenotproperlydated.

Acoalition(www.koalisijakarta2030.wordpress.com)wasfoundedwithademandthattheprocessberepeatedinaparticipatoryway.[8]Thecoalitionthenorganisedseriesofdiscussionsonseveraltopics(habitat,water,arts,mobility,particiatorymethodologies,…).Thegovernmentrespondedwithorganisingalsoseriesofthematicdiscussions.Thecoalitionsentletterstoeachandeverydiscussion,statingthatitisnottheparticipatoryprocessthatthecoalitionadvocates,anditisnotthatthecoalitionpromotesitselftobeinvitedtothoseunstructured“consultative”meetingswithuncertainfutureaswhattodowiththeirresults.

TheCoalitiondiscoveredmanyformal/legalrequirementsarenotsatisfiedwithregardstotheprocess.Atthesametime,wealsodiscoveredmanysilly,indeedembarassingmistakeswithregardstothecontentofthedraftbylaw. Afewexamplescanbementioned.

-      Thevisionstatementforthespatialmasterplan(whichis.notabene,along-termplan)wasadoptedinrawformfromtheGovernor’svisionstatementforhiscurrentterm(whichis,notebeneamedium-termaction-plan):“Jakartaisaservicecitythatisprosperous,convenientandsustainable.”Thereisnoreasoningaboutitsfactualandaspirationalbasis.

-      TheNeufertstandardforcalculatingfloorspacerequirementisusedtocalculatelandrequirement(ineffectassumingthatallJakartabuildingsaretoconsistofonefloor…?!).

-      Populationprojectionisbasedonaggregatedtrend,whilenaturalgrowthrateandmigrationgrowthratearemovingsignificantlyindifferentslopes.

Thecoalitionisnowpreparingalaw-suitagainstJakartaGovernmentonthebasisthatthedraftbylawontheJakarta2010-2030SpatialMasterplanhasnotsatisfiedanumberoflawsandregulationsissuedbythecentralgovernments,amongothers:

-      ThelawNo.32/2009onManagementandProtectionoftheEnvironmentthatrequiresfirstaStrategicEnvironmentalAssessmentbemadebeforeaspatialplanningprocessisinitiated.

-      ThelawNo.14/2008onFreedomtoPublicInformationthatguaranteespublicaccesstopublicinformation(inthiscasetheAcademic(Background)paper)

-      ThelawNo.25/2005onMinimumStandardofPublicServices.

-      ThePublicWorksMinistrialRegulationonGuidelinesforProvincialSpatialPlannningProcess(no.15/2009)thatstipulatesindetailpubliccommunicationrequiredtomakespatialplanningprocessapublicknowledgeandengagement

ThecoalitioniscurrentlyconductingOpinionSurvey(on-lineandoff-line)withfivequestions:

  1. WhatdoyouthinkarethreemostimportantpotentialsorencouragingadvantagesofJakarta?
  2. WhatdoyoufindasthreemostimportantproblemsofJakarta?
  3. Whatchangeswouldyouliketosee20yearsfromnow?
  4. Howdoyouthinkweshouldhavethechanges?
  5. Whatwouldyoupersonallydotohelpmakingthechanges?
  6. HaveyoueveraskedyouropinionsforJakarta2010-2030spatialmasterplanbefore?
Thecoalitionwillinearlynextmonthconductaworkshoptodraftvisionandmissionstatementsbasedontheabovesurvey.Answerstothefirsttwoquestionswillprovidematerialbasisforvisionstatement;whilethosetotherestwillprovidematerialbasisformissionstatement.

Morethan1,500questionaireshavebeenreturned.Almostall ofthemmentionpublictrasportationasnumberoneproblem.Fornumbertwoandthree,themostmentionedproblemsarewastedisposal,flood,lackofgreenopenspaces,andsafety.Diversity,abundance,centrality,jobopportunities,aremostlymentionedasthethreemostimportantpotentialsofJakarta.ItiseasytodraftaresponsiveandmeasurablealternativevisionforJakarta:“Jakartain2030isacityfreeofflood,withasustainablemanagementofwastedisposal,andaconvenientpublictransportformostofitsinhabitants,whilepromotingitsdiversityandjobcreationintheprocess.”Soundingmundane,itisalreadymuchbetterthanthecurrentraftvisionwhichisbasedsolelyontheGovernor’spoliticalmid-termvision.

Conclusion

AneedforanUrbanStudiesCenter

Participationandcitizens’initiative,whilethemselvesareaprocessofknowledgegeneration,requirecontinuousinputsfrompolicyandotherpolicyresearches,astheworldischangingrapidlyandinabundance.Manyandmuchurbandynamicsarerapidlytakingplaceatalllevelsofsocietiesandbuiltandnaturalenvironments,inclosetieswithnationalandglobaleconomicdynamics.Becauseofthis,thereisahugegapsinknowledgecapacityamongcityandregionalactors.Evenwhentherearedataandknowledges,itisnotalwayseasytoidentifytheirlocations.Thereisaneedtodevelopanalyticalcapacitiesandframeworksthatcouldmaximizeinterdisciplinaryandinter-sectoralexchangesthatcanbeemployedtofacilitatedparticipatoryprocess.Inthelongrun,thereisalsoanapparentneedtorestructureurbangovernanceinJakartaandpossiblyalsomanyothermetropolesinAsia,tobetterservethedecentralisedpopulationandtoadaptintimetoglobalwavesofchanges.Localpoliticaldynamicsneedtoreconceptualiseitstieswiththenationalandtheglobal,especiallyindealingwitheconomicissues.Jakarta,aswellasotherAsianmetropoles,areexperiencingrestructuringprocessofboththeirurbancentersandperipeheries,asconsequencesofbothinternalandexternalpressures.Atgroundlevel,urbanmanagershavetoacquirenewkillsindealingwithpermits,buildingsustainableinfrastructures,inworkingmuchmorewithcitizens,etc.tomaintainconsistenttransitiontowardssustainability.

Anurbanstudiescentercouldservetofulfilsuchknowledgegapsabove,throughresearchandtraining.Otherwise,participatoryandcitizens’initiativeswillbesufficientlyinformedandmightbemisguided.

SustainedChange

Inourquesttochangetowardssustainability,weinevitablyfindthatweneedasustainablechange,whichispossibleonlyifthereisapopularownershipandpersonalcommitmentfromeveryoneonthisonlyplanet.Mobilisingsustainablechangeispossibleonlywhenpeoplefeelthattheyarenotmovedbyanyoutsideagent,butbytheirownwill.  Theymustbecometheagentsforchangethemselves.Theymustbethechangetheywishtoseeinthisworld.[9]

Participationisnotwithoutproblems,anditisnotarosyroadtodevelopment.Itissimplyanecessityforpeopletobecometheagentsforchangesthemselves,toownandsustainchangesthattheywantforthemselves.Hencewemustseedifficultiesandproblemsofparticipationaschalenngestobedealtwith,insteadofusingthemasargumentsagainstthem.Wehaveexperiencedresitanceagainstparticipationcomesfromeitherignoranceorfearofthecollectiveenergy,oracombinationofboth.

GiventhecurrentcontextofIndonesia,Iseethewaytoadvocateforparticipationistonurture,facilitateandcatalysecitizensinitiativesasshowcasesofpositiveenergyofthewilltochange,whileatthesametimeinfluencelegalframework,developmethdologicalpracticesastoolstoconvinceauthorities.

LastDecember,theDirectorateGeneralofSpatialPlanningatIndonesianMinistryofPublicWorksawarded6grantsforcitizens’initiativeswhichwereselectedcompetitivelybasedonacallforproposals.Theprogrammeiscalled“Citizens’InitiativesforSustainableCities”.Thewholeprocessisco-organisedwitheditorsofwww.rujak.orgasyetanothercitizens’initiative. Iputthislastexampleofcitizens’initiativesinthisconclusionasanoptimisticafternote,thatchangemightbehappening.But,nothingshouldbetakenforgranted,andthereisnostopindoingthenitty-grittytomakedemocracyworkinthisimperfectworld.

[1]PaperwrittenforTokyoUniversity’s“SustainabelCity-regionWorkshops,”23-24February2010,Shangri-LaHotel,Tainan,Taiwan.

[2]In2000IworkedwithTheBritishCouncilinIndonesiatoconductparticipatoryworkshopsforconflictingpartiesintheMollucas.

[3]IwasTeamLeaderforCityDevelopmentStrategyprogrammein9citiesinIndonesiain2001-2003.ItwasfundedbyCitiesAlliance,throughtheWorldBankandUN-HABITATofficesinJakarta.

[4]In2005-2007Iwasinvolvedinanumberofassignmentsinpost-tsunamiAceh.Thelongestone,reconstrcutionof23villagesinAceh,ispresentedasacaseinthispaper.

[5]SeeCoalition’swebsite:www.koalisijakarta2030.wordpress.comandanarticlepublishedintheJakartaPost:http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2010/02/06/why-do-we-need-redo-jakarta-spatial-masterplan.html

[6]KarlPolanyi’ssubstantiveeconomy:peopleacquiringmaterialmeansbyhavinganimpactonthenaturalenvironmentand/orthroughrelationshipsofmutualinterdependenceinordertosatisfytheirvariousneedsthatariseastheyengageintheirday-to-daylives;andeconomyinformalsense:theprocessofobtainingthemaximumeffectbymakingthebestuseofascarcemeans,inMakotoMaruyama,SustainableEconomyandUrbanSustainability,inHidenoriTamagawa,ed.,SustainableCities,UnitedNationsUniversityPress,2006,p.771-72.

[7]ReferringtoSherryR.Arnstein’s8stepsofparticipation(inALadderofCitizenParticipation,1969)

[8]SeearticleintheJakartaPost:http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2010/02/06/why-do-we-need-redo-jakarta-spatial-masterplan.html

[9]MahatmaGandhi:“Yououghttobethechangeyouwishtoseeinthisworld”

 

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